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Supporting Research

Please check this page often for industry insights, white papers, and useful data. 

1. "Industrial agriculture is the large-scale, intensive production of crops and animals, often involving chemical fertilizers on crops or the routine, harmful use of antibiotics in animals." "Industrial Agriculture 101." Natural Resources Defense Council, 31 January 2020. Accessed 23 January 2024.

2. "Beef production is responsible for 41% of deforestation." Ritchie, Hannah. "Cutting Down Forests: What are the drivers of deforestation?" Our World In Data, 23 February 2021. Accessed 23 January 2024.

3. "Forty-two percent of the world's freshwater (CWU) is used for animal agriculture." "Water Use in Global Livestock Production - Opportunities and Constraints for Increasing Water Productivity." Advancing Earth and Space Sciences, 20 November 2020. Accessed 23 January 2024.

4. "[Precision Fermentation] is a new way of producing protein-rich and fat-rich foods, which can greatly reduce the amount of land we require and the amount of water." Jackson, Lauren. "Future of Food: How the Agriculture Industry Could Go From Farming to Ferming." The New York Times, 29 July 2022. Accessed 23 January 2024.

5. "Plant-based Innovation will disrupt the food supply system and be the next investable mega trend." Alfano, Elysabeth. "Investing in Plant-based Innovation." ESG Clarity, 27 July 2022. Accessed 23 January 2024.

6. "Solutions to Mitigate Climate Change." Project Drawdown. Accessed 23 January 2024.

7. "Current forecast models indicate that alternative proteins will represent 11% of all protein consumption by 2035." Morach, Benjamin et al. "The Untapped Climate Opportunity in Alternative Proteins." Boston Consulting Group, 8 July 2022. Accessed 23 January 2024.

8. "Livestock accounts for 80% of agricultural land use." Ritchie, Hannah and Roser, Max. "Half of the World's Habitable Land is Used for Agriculture." Our World In Data, 16 February 2024. Accessed 13 May 2024.

9. "Preventing the Next Pandemic - Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission." United Nations Environment Programme, 29 February 2020. Accessed 23 January 2024.

10. "The plant-based foods market could make up to 7.7% of the global protein market by 2030, with a value of over $162 billion." "Plant-based Foods Market to Hit $162 Billion in Next Decade, Projects Bloomberg Intelligence." Bloomberg, 11 August 2021. Accessed 23 February 2024.

11. "By 2035, 11% of all meat, seafood, eggs, and dairy eaten around the globe is very likely to be alternative." Morach, Benjamin et al. "Food for Thought: The Protein Transformation." Boston Consulting Group, 24 March 2021. Accessed 23 January 2024.

12. Discusses calorie conversion rates. "Creating a Sustainable Food Future." World Resources Institute, 2013-2014. Accessed 23 January 2024.

13. "Roughly 40% of the world's population is affected by water scarcity, much of which is linked to animal agriculture using 29% of the world's freshwater supply." Koldemir, Kubra and Alfano, Elysabeth. "Forget The Space Race: We're in a Race for Food and Water." ESG Investor, 20 May 2022. Accessed 23 January 2024.

14. "Methane emissions from livestock, which includes cattle, are the largest source of agricultural emissions worldwide." Jones, Erin et al. "Yes, cattle are the top source of methane emissions in the US." Verify, 12 November 2021. Accessed 23 January 2024.

15. "The animal industry is the No. 1 industrial source of methane emissions in the U.S., contributing an estimated 37 percent of total human-caused emissions." Morris, Viveca. "The Cow-Shaped Hole in Biden's Methane Plan." Politico, 16 November 2021. Accessed 23 January 2024.

16. "Livestock emissions - from manure and gastroenteric releases - account for roughly 32 percent of human-caused methane emissions." "Methane emissions are driving climate change. Here's how to reduce them." UN Environmental Programme, 20 August 2021. Accessed 23 January 2024.

17. "The Beyond Burger generates 90% less greenhouse gas emissions, requires 46% less energy, has >99% less impact on water scarcity and 93% less impact on land use than a 1/4 pound of U.S. beef." Keoleian, Gregory and Heller, Martin. "Beyond Meat's Beyond Burger Life Cycle Assessment." University of Michigan, 14 September 2018. Accessed 23 January 2024.

18. "Half of the world's habitable land is used for agriculture. 70% of global freshwater withdrawals are used for agriculture." Ritchie, Hannah et al. "Environmental Impacts of Food Production." Our World In Data, Accessed 23 January 2024.

19. "While livestock takes up most of the world's agricultural land it only produces 18% of the world's calories and 37% of total protein." Ritchie, Hannah and Roser, Max. "Land Use." Our World In Data, September 2019. Accessed 23 January 2024.

20. "As a whole, the plant-based innovation industry or investment segment does not match traditional mainstream industry sectors - it consists of a multitude of innovative initiatives and companies." Alfano, Elysabeth et al. "Is Plant-Based Innovation Emerging as a Solution & Investable Opportunity?" Chartered Alternative Investment Association, 23 August 2023. Accessed 23 January 2024.

21. "The Plantbased Business Hour." Industry expert Elysabeth Alfano sits down for in-depth conversations with thought leaders and CEOs in the sector.

22. 16.5% of emissions are from animal agriculture. The 16.5% is inferred from two reports, one from the UN (9.1 Gt of carbon equivalents for animal agriculture is from the UN GLEAM 2.9 Model report), divided by the total carbon equivalent emissions from the IPCC (49 Gt of carbon equivalent emissions from the IPCC AR5 report). Twine, Richard. "Emissions from Animal Agriculture--16.5% Is the New Minimum Figure." ResearchGate, June 2021. Accessed 23 January 2024.

23. "A substance called trimethylamine N-oxide, which is produced when your body digests red meat, may raise the risk of cardiovascular problems." "Red Meat, TMAO and Your Heart." Harvard Health Publishing, 1 September 2019. Accessed 23 January 2024.

24. "Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in plant-based sales, with the total U.S. market growing from $4.8 billion in 2018 to $7.4 billion in 2021." "Plant-based Foods Migration Analysis and Consumer Research Report." Plant-based Foods Association, November 2022. Accessed 23 January 2024.

25. "About 20% of consumers purchased a PBMA [Plant-based Meat Alternative] at least once, and 12% purchased a PBMA on multiple occasions." Neuhofer, Zachary and Lusk, Jayson. "Most plant-based meat alternative buyers also buy meat: an analysis of household demographics, habit formation, and buying behavior among meat alternative buyers." Nature.com, 29 July 2022. Accessed 23 January 2024.

26. "As of 2019, Americans eat approximately 280 pounds of meat a year." "Meat Supply Per Person, 1961 to 2020." Our World in Data. Accessed 23 January 2024.

27. "99% of US farmed animals are living in factory farms: 70.4% of cows, 98.3% of pigs, 99.8% of turkeys, 98.2% of chickens raised for eggs, and 99.9% of chicken raised for meat." Anthis, Jacy Reese. "US Factory Farming Estimates." Sentience Institute, 11 April 2019. Accessed 23 January 2024.

28. "For alternative proteins, we expect the exponential adoption phase will be reached through the 2030s." Dr. Tubb, Catherine. "S-Curve Adoption: Our House View on Alternative Protein Market Growth." Synthesis Capital, 11 October 2022. Accessed 23 January 2024.

29. "Shifting worldwide to a healthy low-meat diet would reduce the costs of stabilizing greenhouse gases at 450 ppm CO2 eq. by more than 50%." Stehfest, Elke et al. "Climate Benefits of Changing Diet." PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, 12 February 2009. Accessed 23 January 2024.

30. "Methane emissions also result from livestock and other agricultural practices, land use, and by the decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills." "Overview of Greenhouse Gases." US EPA, 10 October 2023. Accessed 23 January 2024.

31. "Observed climate change is already affecting food security through increasing temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and greater frequency of some extreme events." Mbow, Cheikh et al. "Food Security." IPCC. Accessed 23 January 2024.

 

32. "Sixth Assessment Report." IPCC, 20 March 2023. Accessed 23 January 2024.

33. "30 percent of the earth's entire land surface is already being used for livestock." "Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options." FAO, 2006. Accessed 23 January 2024.

34. "Chicken results in 1 calorie of food for every 9 calories of feed. For cows, an estimate is 25 calories of feed for every 1 calorie of food." "Animal-based Foods are More Resource-Intensive than Plant-based Foods." World Resources Institute, 20 April 2016. Accessed 23 January 2024.

35. "A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Plant-based Foods and Meat Foods." Quantis International, March 2016. Accessed 23 January 2024.

36. "Oatly exhibited a lower environmental impact compared to conventional semi-skimmed milk." Oatly Research. The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, January 2013. Accessed 23 January 2024.

37. "Food insecurity increased by over 25% in the U.S. 2022 vs 2021." "Key Statistics & Graphics." USDA ERS, 25 October 2023. Accessed 23 January 2024.

38. "Meat eaters are responsible for 75% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions." Xu, Xiaoming et al. "Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Animal-Based Foods are Twice Those of Plant-based Foods." Nature Food, 13 September 2021. Accessed 23 January 2024.

 

39. "The hidden costs of global agrifood systems is equivalent to $12.7 trillion which is almost 10% of the GDP in 2020." "Hidden Costs of Agrifood Systems at the Global Level." FAO, 2023. Accessed 23 January 2024.

40. "Food systems are responsible for 30% of the greenhouse gas emissions, while animal products make up nearly 60% of food-related emissions." "What's Cooking? An Assessment of Potential Impacts of Selected Novel Alternatives to Conventional Animal Products." United Nations Environmental Programme, 8 December 2023. Accessed 23 January 2024.

41. Mariam Almheiri reminds us that as the population rises we need to use our resources more efficiently so that we can create enough food for everyone. "AIM for Climate: Scaling Climate-Smart Agriculture and Food Systems Innovation." UAE, 10 December 2023. Accessed 23 January 2024.

42. The Declaration highlights some of the important objectives surrounding food and climate change that the heads of state and government hope to fulfill by 2025. Over 150+ countries have signed on. "COP28 UAE Declaration on Sustainable Agriculture, Resilient Food Systems, and Climate Action." UAE, 2023. Accessed 23 January 2024.

43. "U.S. health care costs for chronic diseases totaled $1.1 trillion in 2016. When lost economic productivity is included, the total economic impact was $3.7 trillion. This is equivalent to nearly 20 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP)." Waters, Hugh and Graf, Marlon. "Chronic Diseases are Taxing our Health Care System and our Economy." STAT, 31 May 2018. Accessed 23 January 2024.

44. "This study provides substantial evidence that unprocessed red and processed meat, though not poultry, might be risk factors for IHD." Papier, Keren et al. "Meat Consumption and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis." National Library of Medicine, 20 July 2021. Accessed 23 January 2024.

45. "Consumption of processed meat is carcinogenic to humans, and consumption of red meat is probably carcinogenic to humans." "WHO report says eating processed meat is carcinogenic: Understanding the findings." Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 3 November 2015. Accessed 23 January 2024.

46. "People who eat just two servings of red meat per week may have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to people who eat fewer servings, and the risk increases with greater consumption." "Red Meat Consumption Associated with Increased Type 2 Diabetes Risk." Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 19 October 2023. Accessed 23 January 2024.

47. "Red and processed meat intake is directly associated with risk of obesity, and higher BMI and WC." Rouhani, M H. "Is there a relationship between red or processed meat intake and obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies." National Library of Medicine, 15 September 2014. Accessed 23 January 2024.

48. "Livestock farmers routinely administer antibiotics to healthy animals as a means of promoting growth and preventing infections, putting the long-term efficacy of these vital drugs at risk." Lettini, Maria. "Antimicrobial Resistance: An Unseen Crisis." FAIRR, 25 November 2020. Accessed 23 January 2024.

49. "A plant in Beardstown, IL., owned by meat-processing giant JBS released about 1,850 pounds of nitrogen on average each day into a tributary of the Illinois River." Briscoe, Tony. "Illinois Slaughterhouse Biggest Nitrogen Polluter of Waterways in U.S., study finds." Chicago Tribune, 12 October 2018. Accessed 23 January 2024.

50. "Even in cities, ammonia from farms produces more particulate pollution than the cities themselves do." Monbiot, George. "What's Your Poison?" Monbiot.com, 2 October 2023. Accessed 23 January 2024.

51. "The United States federal government spends $38 billion every year subsidizing the meat and dairy industries." Gillette, David and Barge, Warren. "The True Cost of a Hamburger." American Institute for Economic Research, 20 April 2022. Accessed 23 January 2024.

52. The U.S. beef industry is creating an army of influencers and citizen activists to amplify its greenwashing messages. Fassler, Joe. "Inside Big Beef's Climate Messaging Machine: Confuse, Defend and Downplay." The Guardian, 3 May 2023. Accessed 23 January 2024.

53. "Israel has approved the sale of cultured meat based on beef." Staff, Toi and Wrobel, Sharon. "In world first, Israel approves cultured beef for sale to the public." Times of Israel, 17 January 2024. Accessed 23 January 2024.

54. "Total meat production has more than quadrupled since 1961." Ritchie, Hannah et al. "Meat and Dairy Production." Our World In Data, August 2017. Accessed 13 February 2024.

55. This image shows Earth systems tipping points, along with positive tipping points and the impacts of those tipping points. "Global Tipping Points." Global Tipping Points. Accessed 13 February 2024.

56. "The State of Climate Action 2023 finds that recent progress toward 1.5ºC-aligned targets isn't happening at the pace and scale necessary and highlights where action must urgently accelerate this decade to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, scale up carbon removal and increase climate finance." "State of Climate Action 2023." World Resources Institute, 14 November 2023. Accessed 13 February 2024.

57. We have surpassed six of the nine planetary boundaries. Richardson, J. et al. "Planetary Boundaries." Stockholm Resilience Centre. Accessed 15 February 2024

58. "Shifting subsidies from meat production to sustainable farming practices could be a game-changer for our planet." Fortuna, Gerardo. "Redirect farming subsidies from meat for climate's sake, World Bank says." Euro News, 7 May 2024. Accessed 20 May 2024.

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